Visual signals used to be more common, but now almost everyone
has aircraft radios, so you'll likely only see these if your radio fails.
The air traffic controllers create most of the signals with what is essentally
a gigantic flashlight with different coloured filters.
The descriptions of the signals in the table below are taken
directly from the reference for this section, AIP-RAC 4.2.11 and AIP-RAC
4.4.7. There are five light gun signals, but four of them have different
meanings depending on whether you are on the ground or in the air, so there
are really nine light gun signals to memorize, plus two more signals that
don't use the light gun. It's not very hard, because there is a pattern.
You can easily remember green for go, red for stop.
Also remember solid for landing and taking off,
and flashing for get ready or get away.
Then all you have left is the flashing white for "return to your starting
Meaning on the Ground
Meaning in Flight
|SERIES OF GREEN FLASHES
|Cleared to taxi
|Return for landing
|SERIES OF RED FLASHES
|Taxi clear of landing area in use
|Airport unsafe, do not land
|STEADY GREEN LIGHT
|Cleared to take off
|Cleared to land
|STEADY RED LIGHT
|Give way to other aircraft and continue circling
|FLASHING WHITE LIGHT
|Return to starting point on airport
|BLINKING RUNWAY LIGHTS
|Advises vehicles and pedestrians
to vacate runways immediately
|RED PYROTECHNICAL LIGHT
|Do not land for the time being
(only used by military control towers)
Question-by-Question Explanation of Visual Signals
are repetitive. I simply refer you to the above table. Some people make
errors because they misread the visual signals questions. Read across each
row of the question and choose the number that has a correct answer in BOTH
columns, not just one.
2.07 Mink and
similar animals will eat their young if very frightened. All the other answer
options indicate the same thing: an artillery range and an open pit mine
are of concern to pilots because they are areas where explosives are in use.
You will see such prohibited areas marked on charts, but there is no particular
symbol visible from the air, just the mine or firing range itself.
2.08 Low flying
airplanes frighten and disturb wild animals. If they panic, running can lead
to injuries, and tires them out, making them more vulnerable to predators.
Even if the animals are only slightly disturbed the presence of the aircraft
may interfere with grazing, mating and other activities of the herd. You
can remember TWO thousand feet, because most of these animals have TWO antlers.